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New York City Speech Pathologists


  • Remote
  • In-home for New York City, Westchester, Long Island, New Jersey


One of our areas of expertise is language development and literacy. The best way to understand how we speak and comprehend words we hear and understand written words is through linguistics.  Do not worry, as we will not bore you with any grammatical terms. Instead, let us take an evolutionary perspective. Dogs bark to alert their owners of impending danger, and dolphins produce high pitched sounds and clicks for survival purposes. These are communication forms of in-the-moment attempts alerting you of danger or of the animal’s immediate needs. Yet, to date, there’s no evidence that any other animal species demonstrate the ability to produce and understand grammar. Grammar is what makes us special: It provides us with the ability to discuss past and future events. It is a more sophisticated communication system compared to all other animals and previous human species. What evolved from linguistics is a written form of language called literacy. Schools are built around literacy. Speaking and understanding language have been around before we learned how to read and write. In fact, we do not need to be schooled to learn how to speak and understand our native language. On the other hand, literacy is taught explicitly and systematically and takes many years to learn how to master.

When seeking an evaluation to understand why your child is having difficulties with literacy, the top professionals to seek help from are psychologists and speech language pathologists with literacy training. In New York State, licensed clinical psychologists evaluate learning and attentional differences. Next in line are licensed language pathologists who are experts in language (expressive and receptive language and its connection to literacy.) In New York State, language pathologists diagnose language disorders. Language disorders have many names such as developmental language disorder, and research calls it ‘specific language impairment’. Is dyslexia a form of a language disorder? At the research level, academics argue that dyslexia is a language disorder. Dyslexia literally means “bad language.” However, New York State defines dyslexia as a learning disorder which means in New York State, speech language pathologists cannot diagnose learning disorders (this is why psychologists are so vital to your child’s diagnosis). So, whenever your child is having difficulties with literacy, be cautious as teachers and non-licensed therapists cannot diagnose why your child is struggling with literacy. However, it is important that professionals recognize that your child is having learning issues, but it is best to work with a licensed professional who has expertise in this area of concern.

At Long Island Letters, we offer a variety of language and literacy evaluations. Here’s more information about what we offer. We use assessment materials that are scientifically validated for identifying both language and literacy disorders. We know how to interpret these tests which are crucial for your child’s progress. We use an integrated approach that recognizes the connections between speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Without putting these pieces together, it is nearly impossible to understand language learning and potential literacy issues. We also work closely with clinical psychologists who diagnose dyslexia. A full language and literacy evaluation provide you with a comprehensive profile of your child’s strengths and weaknesses and best positions your child for maximal progress.  We travel to you and can remotely evaluate your child within a week or two by one of our experienced licensed language pathologists/therapists.

Based on learning how your child is struggling, we act as detectives to thoroughly investigate your child’s spoken and written language skills at the word, sentence, and discourse levels. We explain how one area negatively impacted can spill over to other areas of literacy.  For example, if a child is struggling with reading, it could be due to difficulties at either the sound (phoneme), grammar (passive or complex sentences), vocabulary levels at various modalities involving listening (auditory, no text), written, and spoken levels. Poor listening comprehension is highly correlated with weak reading comprehension skills.

Based on the evaluation’s results, intervention goals are developed based on where your child is demonstrating weaknesses, such as phonemes, grammar, and vocabulary in connection to the modality levels (listening, speaking, comprehending text, writing).  Recommendations for modifications and accommodations for students with language and literacy disabilities are also provided for families and school staff.  These evaluations should not be a substitute for a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. We work closely with some of the top New York State neuropsychologists.  Neuropsychological evaluations are crucial for understanding learning and attentional differences and are more comprehensive than our evaluations. Neuropsychological evaluations dive deep into how attention, memory, cognitive, language, and social/emotional functioning can negatively impact learning. Our assessments can also provide you with invaluable information if you cannot afford a neuropsychological evaluation, you cannot wait months to receive the results of a neuropsychological evaluation, or if your child is suspected of having a language disorder.  On average it takes us two weeks to produce the report.  Our goal is to provide you with objective data to help you figure out your next steps to intervention or additional testing.

Speech language literacy testing in Long Island.
Language and Literacy Evaluations
(4-6 years old) Preschool-1st Grade (starting at $300)

A full language and literacy evaluation for school age children can include:

Here are some of the skills we can cover during our evaluation: Vocabulary awareness, story retelling, spelling, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, decoding novel words that are not recognizable as real words, reading fluency, written expression, social communication, and short term and verbal working memory.

Phonemic Awareness:  We assess your child’s awareness of the individual sounds of words and his or her ability to manipulate them to create new words.

Decoding & Spelling:  We assess your child’s ability to read and spell unknown words in order to gather information about his or her knowledge of sound and letter patterns. Having a strong knowledge base about sound and letter patterns helps individuals become fluent readers and writers.

Listening & Reading Comprehension:  Individuals with language and literacy disorders may not have difficulty engaging in social conversations; however, they are more likely to have trouble navigating the complex academic language found in their classrooms. We assess your child’s ability to comprehend vocabulary words and complex sentences that are similar to those which he or she may encounter in the directions, discussions, and texts in their classrooms.

Oral expression and written language skills:  We assess your child’s ability to use language to communicate a coherent message when speaking and writing.  Students will be asked to retell a story and explain how to play a game or sport.  The evaluator analyzes the oral and written responses in order to determine the overall quality and organization, length, complexity, and grammaticality of the words and sentences and the number of different words used.

Social communication skills: We assess your child’s ability to understand a social situation which is important for reading comprehension.

A full school age language and literacy evaluation will take approximately 1.5-2.5 hours and could take place over two sessions depending on the child’s unique needs.  The full evaluation will include a 7-10 page report while other evaluations are 1-3 pages in length.

Long Island Speech Language Literacy Testing
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Phone: (347) -394-3485

Text: (917) 426-8880

Email: longislandletters@brooklynletters.com

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